Monday, November 7, 2011

October 1912 Balkan War

The Balkan Wars were a sharp and bloody series of conflicts fought in southeastern Europe during the autumn of 1912 and the winter, spring and summer of 1913.

Before the war of Tripoli came to an end, Bulgaria and Serbia declared war against Ottoman Empire.

Shortly thereafter Greece also declared war. The objective of all power was to drive out the Turks from Europe.

In October 13 the alliance delivered an ultimatum to the Turkish government, demanding radical and overdue reforms in the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The alliance of Bulgarian, Greece, Serbia and Montenegro presented a demand to Turkey that Macedonia should be made self governing.

The Balkan Christian slaughtered Muslims ruthlessly. Temporary peace was concluded at London. Bulgaria had occupied of Edirne as a pre-requisite to permanent peace.

This condition was not acceptable to Ottoman Empire when in 1913 January the big powers advise Khalifah to relinquish Edirne in favor of Balkan States.

The Grand Vizier, Kamil Pasya who was an ally of Britain, agreed to accept the advice. The advise was about to be accepted when Anwar Pasya who has just returned from Tripoli campaign entered the Grand Vizier’s palace and shot Nazim Pasya dead.

Kamil Pasya had to resign and Mahmud Shaukat Pasya was appointed Grand Vizier. After the change of the Grand Vizier the temporary peace came to an end and war started.

When all the Balkan states bordering Turkey put aside their rivalries and combined for an attack on Turkey, Germany and Austria gave some what moral support they could to Turkey. However, the Ottoman armies were defeated against the Bulgarians.

Greece also made fresh attacks and occupied Samos Island. In 1913 March Bulgaria occupied Edirne. In April a temporary peace was again concluded between the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.

In the Treaty of London in May 3, 1913, Turkey surrendered all her dominions in the Balkan peninsula. The young Turk leaders took advantage of this national disaster to stage a coup d’├ętat and establish a military dictatorship headed by Enver.
October 1912 Balkan War
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